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People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Also known as: Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Jazāʾiriyyah al-Dīmuqrāṭiyyah al-Shaʿbiyyah
History: Free Algeria, from Independence to Now
The war for independence caused great devastation to the country, but the people became more united and dedicated themselves to improving their situation and political landscape. The process, however, was not an easy one. In the end, Algeria became a leader in the Non-Aligned Movement of nations, and an inspiration to other former French colonies in Africa. French influence is still very apparent in areas such as of literature and in government bureaucracy, but it is rarely talked about.
Important dates, from 1962 to 2019 (from this website)
September 20, 1962: Election of the first constituent assembly.
September 25, 1962: Proclamation of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria.
September 29, 1962: Constitution of the first government of Algeria.
October 08, 1962: Admission of Algeria to the U.N.
May 08, 1963: Adoption (by referendum) of the first constitution of Algeria.
September 15, 1963: Election of Mr. Ahmed Ben Bella to the Presidency of the Republic.
May 07, 1966: Nationalization of mines.
February 05, 1967: First local election (A.P.C (Municipalities) and A.P.W. (Provinces/Regions)
February 1st, 1968: Withdrawal of the French army from the naval base of Mers El-Kebir.
February 24, 1971: Nationalization of hydrocarbons.
June 27, 1976: Adoption (by referendum) of the National Charter.
November 19, 1976: Adoption (by referendum) of the second constitution of Algeria.
December 10, 1976: Election of Mr. Houari Boumediene as President of the Republic.
December 27, 1978: Death of President Houari Boumediene.
February 07, 1979: Election of Mr. Chadli Bendjedid as President of the Republic.
January 13, 1983: Reelection of Mr. Chadli Bendjedid as President of the Republic (2nd term).
October 05, 1988: Protests in several cities of Algeria.
November 03, 1988: Adoption (by referendum) of the revision of the Constitution
December 22, 1988: Reelection of Mr. Chadli Bendjedid as President of the Republic (3rd term).
February 23, 1989: Adoption (by referendum) of the fourth constitution of Algeria.
June 05, 1991: Proclamation of the state of siege in the country.
January 04, 1992: Dissolution of the People’s National Assembly (Parliament).
January 12, 1992: Resignation of President Chadli Bendjedid.
February 02, 1992: Declaration of the state of emergency in the country, which lasted for 19 years.
February 04, 1992: Creation of a National Consultative Council.
June 29, 1992: Assassination of the President of the Higher State Council, Mr. Mohamed Boudiaf.
July 02, 1992: Mr. Ali Kafi became President of the Higher State Council.
January 30, 1994: End of the Higher State Council, Mr. Liamine Zeroual is designated as Head of State.
May 18, 1994: Creation of the National Council of Transition (in French: Conseil National de Transition).
November 16, 1995: Mr. Liamine Zeroual elected President of the Republic.
November 28, 1996: Referendum on the fifth Constitution of Algeria.
June 05, 1997: Pluralist legislative election.
October 23, 1997: Pluralist local Election.
September 11, 1998: Mr. Liamine Zeroual announced early presidential election.
April 15, 1999: Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika elected President of the Republic.
September 16, 1999: Adoption by referendum of the Law on the civil concord.
April 10, 2002: Constitutionalization of Tamazight (Berber Language) as national language.
May 30, 2002: Second pluralist legislative election.
April 08, 2004: Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika re-elected President of the Republic.
September 23, 2005: Adoption, by referendum, of the National Charter for Peace and Reconciliation.
November 12, 2008: Revision of the Constitution of Algeria.
April 09, 2009: Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika re-elected President of the Republic.
April 17, 2014: Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika again re-elected President of the Republic.
March 2016: Revision of the constitution.
February 22, 2019: Start of the peaceful popular movement (Hirak).
April 2, 2019: Resignation of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.
December 12, 2019: Election of Mr. Abdelmadjid Tebboune as President.